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Black Basalt bulldog by Ernest Light - c.1913

Black Basalt bulldog by Herbert Knight, © Wedgwood Museum
    Black Basalt bulldog by Herbert Knight
    © Wedgwood Museum

Black Basalt figurine of Bulldog with glass eyes by Ernest Light.

Black Basalt figurine of Bulldog with glass eyes by Ernest Light.

  • Type of object: Portraits and figures/figurine
  • Mark: (unmarked)
  • Year produced: c.1913
  • Body: Black Basalt
  • Glaze: unglazed
  • Material: ceramic, glass
  • Accession number: 9847

Related people

  • Ernest William Light

    Ernest William Light (1872 - 1932)

    Ernest William Light was a sculptor and modeller who studied at South Kensington School of Art. He was the Headmaster of Hanley School of Art and Master-in-Charge of Stoke-on-Trent School of Art, 1920-32. Light was commissioned to model at least twenty-six small bird, insect and animal figures, which were reproduced in Black Basalt from 1913. When the series was reintroduced in 1935, the glass eyes were omitted in favour of modelled sights. Light's models included: Alighting Bird, Cockatoo, Crane, Egret, Flamingo, four versions of Flying Bird, Kingfisher, Hornbills, Pelican, Raven, Toy Jap Bird, Woodpecker, Bear, Bulldog, Cat, Elephant, Poodle, Rabbit, Squirrel, Dragonfly, and four models of a Butterfly. Trials were also made in bone china. Light may also have modelled a figure of Aphrodite on a Rock introduced at the same time.


  • Black Basalt

    Black Basalt

    A fine-grained black stoneware body, composed of ball clay, calcined ochre and manganese oxide. Josiah Wedgwood developed black basalt in 1768 to replace the earlier ‘black Egyptian’ ware produced in Staffordshire in the mid-eighteenth century. 


    Basalt was described by Josiah Wedgwood as ‘A fine black Porcelain, having nearly the same properties as the Basaltes i.e., the mineral rock', resisting the Attack of Acids; being a Touch-stone to Copper, Silver and Gold, and equal in Hardness to Agate or Porphyry'. It was the result of his experiments to perfect fine-grained stoneware suitable for the production of ornamental pieces, one that would complement the neo-classical styles then coming into vogue. It is probable that Wedgwood was experimenting with a basalt body in September 1767. He wrote to Bentley, ‘I am still going on with my tryals, & want much to shew you some of them'. Certainly within 12 months Basalt was generally available. From 1773 Wedgwood's plain-black body became universally known as ‘basaltes'. Both ornamental and useful wares were produced in this versatile body and it was used to make virtually anything the public required. Wedgwood placed great confidence in his material, predicting that ‘Black is Sterling and will last for ever'.

    Black clay was derived from ‘Carr', an oxide of iron suspended in the water that had flowed through coal seams and mines. This was drained and dried and then sold by the cartload to potters for use in the production of basalt pottery. Wedgwood made no secret of his recipe for Basalt, which he recorded on page 236 of ‘Common Place Book I. The entry is dated 1777, and reads:

    ‘Our Black Basalt Body. 80 of ball clay sifted 80 of Carr [ochre] calcined & ground 9 of manganese. The above is one Blending.'

    When these ingredients were fired together at a high temperature they vitrified into a fine-textured black body. The distinctive colour of Wedgwood's basalt, which has a deep purplish-black hue, is due to the high proportion of manganese included in the formula.