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Black Basalt volute Krater vase - c.1800

Black Basalt volute Krater vase, © Wedgwood Museum
    Black Basalt volute Krater vase
    © Wedgwood Museum

Vase; volute Krater form, inspired by an antique example in the collection of Sir William Hamilton. Black Basalt c.1800

Vase; volute Krater form, inspired by an antique example in the collection of Sir William Hamilton. Black Basalt c.1800

  • Type of object: Ornamental ware/vase
  • Mark: WEDGWOOD
    O or 0
  • Year produced: c.1800
  • Body: Black Basalt
  • Accession number: 4456

Related people

  • Sir William Hamilton

    Sir William Hamilton (1731 - 1803)

    Sir William Hamilton, KB, PC FRS was a Scottish diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and vulcanologist. After a short period as a Member of Parliament, he served as British Ambassador to The Two Sicilies from 1764 to 1800. He studied Mounts Vesuvius and Etna, becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society and recipient of the Copley Medal. He is perhaps best known as being the cuckolded husband of Emma Hamilton, the mistress of Admiral Lord Nelson.


  • Vases


    Wedgwood announced his intention of becoming, ‘Vase Maker General to the Universe' in a letter to Bentley on 1st May 1769. His vases were enormously successful when they were first shown in the London Showrooms. It was reported in May 1769 that, ‘There was no getting to the door for Coaches, nor into the rooms for Ladies and Gent.n. & ... Vases was all the cry'.

  • Black Basalt

    Black Basalt

    A fine-grained black stoneware body, composed of ball clay, calcined ochre and manganese oxide. Josiah Wedgwood developed Black Basalt in 1768 to replace the earlier ‘black Egyptian’ ware produced in Staffordshire in the mid-eighteenth century. 


    Basalt was described by Josiah Wedgwood as ‘A fine black Porcelain, having nearly the same properties as the Basaltes i.e., the mineral rock', resisting the Attack of Acids; being a Touch-stone to Copper, Silver and Gold, and equal in Hardness to Agate or Porphyry'. It was the result of his experiments to perfect fine-grained stoneware suitable for the production of ornamental pieces, one that would complement the neo-classical styles then coming into vogue. It is probable that Wedgwood was experimenting with a basalt body in September 1767. He wrote to Bentley, ‘I am still going on with my tryals, & want much to shew you some of them'. Certainly within 12 months Basalt was generally available. From 1773 Wedgwood's plain-black body became universally known as ‘basaltes'. Both ornamental and useful wares were produced in this versatile body and it was used to make virtually anything the public required. Wedgwood placed great confidence in his material, predicting that ‘Black is Sterling and will last for ever'.

    Black clay was derived from ‘Carr', an oxide of iron suspended in the water that had flowed through coal seams and mines. This was drained and dried and then sold by the cartload to potters for use in the production of basalt pottery. Wedgwood made no secret of his recipe for Basalt, which he recorded on page 236 of ‘Common Place Book I. The entry is dated 1777, and reads:

    ‘Our Black Basalt Body. 80 of ball clay sifted 80 of Carr [ochre] calcined & ground 9 of manganese. The above is one Blending.'

    When these ingredients were fired together at a high temperature they vitrified into a fine-textured black body. The distinctive colour of Wedgwood's Basalt, which has a deep purplish-black hue, is due to the high proportion of manganese included in the formula.



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