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Medal Pope Gelasius II - 1773

Medal Pope Gelasius II
    Medal Pope Gelasius II

This black basalt medal features Pope Gelasius II. It is part of a series of medals of popes' heads issued in 1773. They are copies of partly antique coins and cast in one piece without any sprigged ornament. These medals were intended to be sold cheaply in sets for collector's cabinets. Though they were made in large quantities, they did not sell very well in Protestant England and are now surprisingly hard to find. Pope Gregory II was born in the 11th century and was Pope 1118-1119AD. The legend reads 'GELASIVS.II.PONT.MAX.'.

This black basalt medal features Pope Gelasius II. It is part of a series of medals of popes' heads issued in 1773. They are copies of partly antique coins and cast in one piece without any sprigged ornament. These medals were intended to be sold cheaply in sets for collector's cabinets. Though they were made in large quantities, they did not sell very well in Protestant England and are now surprisingly hard to find. Pope Gregory II was born in the 11th century and was Pope 1118-1119AD. The legend reads 'GELASIVS.II.PONT.MAX.'.

  • Type of object: Plaques and medallions/portrait medallion
  • Mark: 164 [Impressed]
    164 [Written on reverse]
  • Year produced: 1773
  • Body: Black Basalt
  • Glaze: unglazed
  • Material: ceramic
  • Decoration: moulded
  • Accession number: 5403hhhh
  • Dimensions: 31 mm (diameter)

Related people

  • Pope Gelasius II Subject

    Pope Gelasius II - Subject

    Born around 1060/1064, and a former monk at Monte Cassino, Gelasius II succeeded Paschal II as Pope in 1118. In his previous role as Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, Gelasius had already drastically reformed the Papal administration. He spent most of his Papacy in and out of exile. He eventually died in France in 1119 to be succeeded by Callixtus II.

Glossary

  • Black Basalt

    Black Basalt

    A fine-grained black stoneware body, composed of ball clay, calcined ochre and manganese oxide. Josiah Wedgwood developed black basalt in 1768 to replace the earlier ‘black Egyptian’ ware produced in Staffordshire in the mid-eighteenth century. 

     

    Basalt was described by Josiah Wedgwood as ‘A fine black Porcelain, having nearly the same properties as the Basaltes i.e., the mineral rock', resisting the Attack of Acids; being a Touch-stone to Copper, Silver and Gold, and equal in Hardness to Agate or Porphyry'. It was the result of his experiments to perfect fine-grained stoneware suitable for the production of ornamental pieces, one that would complement the neo-classical styles then coming into vogue. It is probable that Wedgwood was experimenting with a basalt body in September 1767. He wrote to Bentley, ‘I am still going on with my tryals, & want much to shew you some of them'. Certainly within 12 months Basalt was generally available. From 1773 Wedgwood's plain-black body became universally known as ‘basaltes'. Both ornamental and useful wares were produced in this versatile body and it was used to make virtually anything the public required. Wedgwood placed great confidence in his material, predicting that ‘Black is Sterling and will last for ever'.

    Black clay was derived from ‘Carr', an oxide of iron suspended in the water that had flowed through coal seams and mines. This was drained and dried and then sold by the cartload to potters for use in the production of basalt pottery. Wedgwood made no secret of his recipe for Basalt, which he recorded on page 236 of ‘Common Place Book I. The entry is dated 1777, and reads:

    ‘Our Black Basalt Body. 80 of ball clay sifted 80 of Carr [ochre] calcined & ground 9 of manganese. The above is one Blending.'

    When these ingredients were fired together at a high temperature they vitrified into a fine-textured black body. The distinctive colour of Wedgwood's basalt, which has a deep purplish-black hue, is due to the high proportion of manganese included in the formula.